8-ball pool is one of the most popular billiards games worldwide, played on both amateur and professional levels. It is known for its straightforward rules and competitive gameplay, making it a staple in bars, homes, and tournaments alike.

What is 8-Ball Pool?

8-ball pool is a billiards game that can be played on any size pool table, using sixteen balls: one white cue ball, seven striped balls, seven solid-colored balls, and one black 8-ball. The game is won by the player who, after pocketing their designated group of object balls (solids or stripes), legally pockets the 8-ball.

8-Ball History

The game of 8-ball pool developed from a simpler version known as “B.B.C. Co. Pool” (Balkline and Straight Pool), which originated around the early 1900s in the United States. Over the decades, 8-ball evolved to its current form and became formalized with standardized rules. It quickly grew in popularity because of its simple yet strategic gameplay and became a hallmark in competitive pool leagues worldwide.

How to Play 8-Ball Pool


The game begins with a triangle rack placed at the foot of the table where all fifteen balls are tightly packed. The 8-ball is positioned at the center of the rack, the first (apex) ball of the rack is placed on the foot spot, a solid and a stripe ball are placed at the corners, and the other balls are distributed randomly within the rack. Players either decide or flip a coin to determine who will break the rack.


The player breaking the rack starts the game. The break must either pocket a ball or drive at least four numbered balls to the rails. If a ball is pocketed on the break, the player is assigned either stripes or solids based on the balls pocketed (if both types are pocketed, the player chooses). If no balls are pocketed on the break, the opponent chooses their group upon pocketing a ball.

8-Ball Pool Rules

Legal Shot

After the groups are determined, players must hit and attempt to pocket the balls of their group — stripes or solids. The player must always hit one of their group balls first and either pocket a designated group ball or cause the cue ball or any other ball to hit a rail.


Common fouls include failing to hit the balls of your group first, pocketing the cue ball (scratch), and pocketing the wrong group ball. Committing a foul gives the opponent “ball in hand,” allowing them to place the cue ball anywhere on the table for their shot.

Winning the Game

The game ends when a player pockets their group’s balls followed by the 8-ball in a called pocket (players must specify the intended pocket for the 8-ball). Pocketing the 8-ball before clearing one’s group of balls, pocketing the 8-ball in an uncalled pocket, or pocketing the 8-ball on the same stroke as a foul, results in a loss.

Strategy and Tactics

8-ball pool requires not just ball-pocketing skills but strategic foresight and planning. Effective players often plan multiple shots ahead, employ safety shots to limit their opponent’s options, and carefully manage the table to clear difficult layouts. Mastery involves both precision in shot-making and smart game management.


8-ball pool offers a rich blend of challenge, strategy, and competition. Whether you are a casual player looking to understand the basics or an aspiring pro honing your skills, understanding the intricacies of 8-ball can greatly enhance your enjoyment and performance in this classic cue sport.